BANA in Brief

What is Braille?

Braille is a system of touch reading and writing in which raised dots represent letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and other symbols. It is written in horizontal lines from left to right across each page, much as print is written. Braille users read by moving a finger or fingers from left to right along each line. Both hands are usually involved in the reading process. The average reading speed is about 125 words per minute, but greater speeds of up to 200 words per minute are possible.

The braille cell, an arrangement of six dots, is the basic unit for reading and writing braille. Sixty-three different patterns are possible from these six dots.

By using braille, blind people have access to the written word. They can become aware of different conventions such as spelling, punctuation, paragraphing, and footnotes. Most of all, blind individuals can have access to a wide range of reading materials - educational and recreational reading as well as other practical materials. Written matter that is part of daily adult life is equally important. These materials include contracts, regulations, insurance policies, directories, appliance instructions, and cookbooks, to name a few. Also through braille, blind people can pursue hobbies and cultural enrichment with such materials as music scores, hymnals, craft instructions, playing cards, and games.

Braille has undergone continuing modification, particularly the addition of contractions, which represent groups of letters or whole words that appear frequently in a language. The use of contractions permits faster braille reading and helps reduce the size of braille books.

Our Mission

BANA's mission is to assure literacy for tactile readers through standardization of braille and/or tactile graphics.

Our Purpose

BANA's purpose is to promote and to facilitate the use, teaching, and production of braille. It publishes rules, interprets and renders opinions pertaining to braille in all existing and future codes. It deals with codes now in existence or to be developed in the future, in collaboration with other countries using English braille. In exercising its function and authority, BANA considers the effects of its decisions on other existing braille codes and formats; the ease of production by various methods; and acceptability to readers.

Who We Are

The Braille Authority of North America is made up of the member organizations shown below. One representative of each member organization serves on the BANA Board.

Full Members:

  • Alternate Text Production Center of the California Community Colleges (ATPC) - Dawn Gross, Representative
  • American Council of the Blind - Judy Dixon, Representative
  • American Foundation for the Blind - Frances Mary D'Andrea, Representative and Immediate Past BANA Board Chair
  • American Printing House for the Blind - Cathy Senft-Graves, Representative
  • Associated Services for the Blind and Visually Impaired - Jessica Rivera, Representative
  • Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind & Visually Impaired - Mary Nelle McLennan, Representative
  • Braille Solutions, Region 4 Educational Serrvice Center - Whitney Gregory, Representative
  • California Transcribers and Educators for the Blind and Visually Impaired - Tracy Gaines, Representative
  • CIDI (Center for Inclusive Design and Innovation)) - Guy Toles, Representative
  • Clovernook Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired - Tina Seger, Representative
  • CNIB (Canadian National Institute for the Blind) - Darleen Bogart, Representative
  • Hadley - Danette Johnson, Representative
  • Horizons for the Blind - Maryann Bartkowski, Representative
  • National Braille Association - Diane Spence, Representative
  • National Braille Press, Inc. - Jackie Sheridan, Representative and Treasurer
  • National Federation of the Blind - Jennifer Dunnam, Representative
  • National Library Service for the Blind and Print Disabled - Tamara Rorie, Representative and BANA Board Chair
  • Perkins School for the Blind - Kim Charlson, Representative

Associate Members:

  • Council of Schools and Services for the Blind (COSB) - Johanna Anand, Representative
  • Crawford Technologies - Jen Goulden, Representative
  • T-Base Communications - Sue Acosta, Representative

How We Serve

BANA works largely through committees composed of transcribers, braille readers, education and rehabilitation professionals, and Board Members. These committees are charged with updating the braille codes, formats, and techniques as well as the on-going business of BANA. Changes to the braille codes may be suggested by readers, transcribers, and producers. Before changes are made, the committees carefully study possible impact on readability and usability of braille as well as the benefit the change would provide. Proposed changes or revisions are submitted to all other technical committees to avoid conflict with existing braille codes. The BANA Board issues final approval for adoption and dissemination.

BANA committees include:

  • Braille Formats Technical Committee
  • Braille Research Committee
  • Crafts and Hobbies Technical Committee
  • Foreign Language Task Force
  • General Committee on Electronic Braille Translation
  • General Committee on Unified English Braille
  • Mathematics Braille Technical Committee
  • Music Braille Technical Committee
  • Publications Committee
  • Review Process Committee
  • Tactile Graphics Technical Committee
  • Ad Hoc Committee on Chemistry
  • Ad Hoc Committee on Early Literacy Materials Production
  • Ad Hoc Committee on Braille Signage and Labeling
  • Ad Hoc Committee on Standardized Tests

Learning about BANA's Work

BANA-Announce is a one-way email list that disseminates official BANA information. To join this listserv, send a blank email message to and follow the directions in the confirmation email that will be sent in response to your subscription request.

BANA Publications

All BANA publications are available electronically from our website, and some publications are avalible in hard copy print and braille for purchase. For further information on obtaining print, braille, or electronic copies, visit

Contact BANA

Tamara Rorie, Chair
Braille Authority of North America

The Braille Authority of North America is a member of the International Council on English Braille. For more information about ICEB, visit